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“Thus, when we calculate the net degree of expressive responding by subtracting the acceptance effect from the rejection effect—essentially differencing off the baseline effect of the incentive from the reduction in rumor acceptance with payment—we find that the net expressive effect is negative 0.5%—the opposite sign of what we would expect if there
was expressive responding. However, the substantive size of the estimate of the expressive effect is trivial. Moreover, the standard error on this estimate is 10.6, meaning the estimate of expressive responding is essentially zero.”