The paper (pdf) makes the case that the primary reason for electoral cycles in dissents is priming. The paper notes three competing explanations: 1) caseload composition, 2) panel composition, and 3) volume of caseloads. And it “rules them out” by regressing case type, panel composition, and caseload on quarters from the election (see Appendix Table D). The coefficients are uniformly small and insignificant. But is that enough to rule out alternate explanations? No. Small coefficients don’t imply that there is no path from proximity to the election via competing mediators to dissent (if you were to use causal language). We can only conclude that the pathway doesn’t exist if there is a sharp null. The best you can do is bound the estimated effect.
Ruling Out Explanations